Photovoltaics is based on the ability of certain materials to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. The underlying physical principle is called the photovoltaic or photoelectric effect.
Simply put, solar energy works like this: While light falls on the solar cells, they generate direct current from it. This means that light energy is converted directly into electrical energy. The individual solar cells are interconnected to form larger solar modules. The direct current generated is converted into alternating current by the inverter and can thus be consumed directly on site or fed into the power grid.
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So-called semiconductors are used in solar technology like they are also used in the manufacture of computer chips. They owe their name to the fact that they can act as an electrical conductor and a nonconductor. ln a solar cell, the non-conductive material becomes a conductor when the electrons are released from the non-conductive crystal compound by the absorption of a photon (sunlight consists of these countless tiny energy carriers). The kinetic energy that they absorb forms the generated current. This is direct current, which is converted into alternating current by an inverter to make it suitable for the power grid.
Axpo is the largest producer of renewable energies in Switzerland and with a portfolio of 19,700 MW we are the leading marketer of green electricity in Europe.
Solar energy is developing in just one direction – that's up. The price for photovoltaics has dropped continuously in recent years whilst climate-friendly energy production is gaining importance. Both factors result in a growing demand for solar energy and technology, and makes this an important growth market for Axpo.
With Axpo subsidiary Urbasolar, we are active across the entire solar value chain.
PV on office buildings, industrial roofs, car parks, shopping centres, greenhouses and on open spaces are our speciality.
Axpo aims to build 10 GW of solar power by 2030, which is more than twice as much installed capacity as we have today in Switzerland in the field of hydropower.
In Switzerland, we are also systematically analysing possible follow-up projects to AlpinSolar and are also very interested in building large-scale plants.
What many people don't know: Axpo, together with its subsidiary CKW, is already actively building solar panels on the roofs of houses and larger buildings in Switzerland.
How we intend to achieve our ambitions in an interview with Christoph Sutter, Renewables at Axpo.
Would you like to install a solar plant at your home? Here you can find out whether it is worthwhile for you to build one:
Together with IWB, we are building the biggest large-scale alpine solar plant in Switzerland. The plant at 2,500 m above sea level produces important winter power.
With this pioneering 2 MW project, we want to drive forward the expansion of renewable energies in Switzerland.
A balanced power mix is needed, and this includes alpine solar power, especially because of its high share of valuable winter power. According to an estimate by Swissolar/Meteotest, alpine solar power has a potential of 16.4 TWh, of which 3.3 TWh can be used in the short to medium term. Here is an overview of the advantages and obstacles of such alpine solar plants.
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Photovoltaics and solar energy have many different aspects. You will find a quick summary to a few important keywords below (FAQ).
A solar cell is about the size of the palm of your hand and consists of two layers that are two to three tenths of a millimetre thick. Today, most solar cells are made of silicon. Their basic material, quartz sand, is available in sufficient quantities on earth - and silicon is considered environmentally friendly.
There are two types of solar cells: Crystalline and amorphous. Crystalline cells account for the largest share of global production. Monocrystalline solar cells are manufactured from pure silicon, which is withdrawn from a silicon melt in a time-consuming and costly process, pressed into bars, and then cut into discs up to 12 centimetres in diameter. All atoms are aligned equally in the monocrystal. The blue to black cells, which also come in different colours if desired, harvest up to 24 per cent of the solar rays in the Iaboratory; in practice, efficiency is 16 to 20 per cent.
Multi-crystalline solar cells consist of industrially produced polysilicon, and their production is significantly less expensive than monocrystalline solar cells. They are bluish in colour and their efficiency in practice is between 11 and 14 per cent.
Amorphous solar cells are less expensive and suitable for simple applications such as a garden fountain or on large house facades. In amorphous solar cells, the electricity generating layer is steamed onto a glass plate. The atoms are no Ionger deposited in a crystal structure, but in a disorderly (amorphous) manner instead. Relatively little silicon is needed for this process, which lowers the price. ln comparison with the 0.2 to 0.3-millimetre thick crystalline cells, these so-called thin-layer cells measure only 0.01 to 0.05 millimetres. The cells are brown or anthracite and have an efficiency of 6 to 10 per cent. On gloomy days, amorphous cells deliver more electricity than others - but their efficiency drops over the years.
When the sun shines, solar panels produce electricity. Logical, isn’t it? But even on less clear days, solar cells can produce electricity, although not at full capacity. This is comparable to our skin, which reacts to solar UV rays even when it is cloudy. Around 75 percent of the electricity generated by conventional solar systems installed in the lowlands is generated from May to September. What’s more: Solar plants do not produce electricity during the night. ln contrast to base load energy from hydropower or nuclear power, photovoltaic power is therefore only moderately predictable and controllable.
By the way: The share of photovoltaics in the Swiss electricity mix in 2018 was 1944 GWh, which corresponds to around 2.9 per cent.By the way: the share of photovoltaics in Swiss electricity production in 2018 was 1944 GWh, which corresponds to around 2.9 percent.
A typical solar panel (one square metre in size) made of commercially available silicon can generate an average of 180 W on a clear, sunny day in Switzerland. That's enough to run a Iaptop computer. A solar system consisting of several panels with a size of 20 square metres produces around 3600 kWh of electricity per year. In comparison: An average Swiss household consumes between 4500-5000 kWh of electricity per year.
As a general rule, the output of solar modules essentially depends on the amount of sunlight (global radiation/geographical location), on orientation (the more precisely the photovoltaic system is positioned at the optimum inclination angle to the south, the higher the yield) or on shade (from trees, chimneys, etc.). But of course the quality of the solar cells also has a significant influence on the overall performance.
A solar park is a large number of solar modules that are installed on fields or other large surfaces and feed the generated electricity into the grid. Sometimes they are referred to as solar farms or open space solar plants. ln a solar park, the solar modules are installed on approximately 3-metre high mounting systems, which are placed into the ground like fence posts. Rows of these mounting systems would be a typical feature of a solar park. Solar parks can be of any size. About 1.6 to 2 hectares of land are required for every megawatt (MW) of installed solar modules (around 4000 modules per MW).
Studies show that up to 67 TWh of electricity could be generated on rooftops and facades in Switzerland. This corresponds to around 110 per cent of annual electricity consumption in Switzerland. If other infrastructures (car parks, reservoirs, noise barriers) and other open spaces, such as those in already developed Alpine regions, were to be covered with solar panels, there would be an additional potential of 25 per cent. The sun could therefore become a major factor in Switzerland's energy supply. However, politicians would have to create incentives for this, i.e. design the market and the framework conditions in such a way that companies are prepared to make the necessary investments - also for large-scale plants. In addition, a strong expansion of photovoltaics requires large storage facilities, which do not yet exist, as well as grid expansion and grid reinforcement, especially at the lowest Ievel.
How much does electricity produced from photovoltaics cost? Thanks to increasingly cheaper solar modules, the production costs for solar energy are continue to drop. They are between 8 and 28 centimes/kWh depending on the size of the system. For comparison, the production costs for nuclear power plants are between 4 and 7 centimes per kWh – for large-scale hydropower they range between 4 and 9 centimes per kWh.
ln addition, the costs per kWh of electricity produced also depend to a large extent on the location, i.e. the local sunshine duration/radiation. In a normal year, the sunshine duration in Lugano is around 2100 hours, while in Glarus it is only around 1200 hours. Accordingly, more or less solar energy can be produced, which naturally has an impact on costs.
Solar energy is an important component of the electricity system. Under the Energy Strategy 2050, power generation from sun and wind is becoming more and more important.
The Smart Energy Lab explains in simple terms how the system functions and what role solar energy plays as a whole. More information on the permanent exhibit at Umwelt Arena in Spreitenbach.